Saturday, March 14, 2020

Monopoly of the United States Postal Service

Monopoly of the United States Postal Service A monopoly is a market system where one supplier has command over the whole or nearly the entire market. The supplier therefore has the ability to dictate the market in his favor. The ability to dictate can be on prices, packaging and service delivery among others (Money, 2011). This paper discusses the United States postal service in its capacity as a monopoly.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Monopoly of the United States Postal Service specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The United States Postal Service The United States Postal Service was established in 1775 by the then continental congress. A post master general was named who effectively coordinated the postal services in the interest the Americans’ welfare. The congress then later directed the expansion of the postal service to include the costal and western regions. The expansion of services continued later. The access to the postal service was enh anced during the mid nineteenth century when the congress lowered the mailing rates making the service more affordable and accessible. This was followed by the introduction of mail deliveries to door steps at absolutely no cost. Another service, the parcel post was introduced by the â€Å"post office department† in the year 1913. The postal department was then awarded a monopoly by the congress to protect it from private firms which could selectively provide services on the basis of profitability. Further legislations have since been made to enhance the service delivery of the department that is currently known as the United States postal service. The postal service became a monopoly under the legislation of the congress. This monopoly was formed by a legislative act and not by any merger. It can therefore be said to have been formed naturally (USPS, 2008). Impact of the Postal Service on the Market The postal service has had significant impact in the American market. Its ext ensive service that handles hundreds of billions of mails in a year has enhanced communication both in the social and economic aspects. The postal service provided a means of communication among entities ranging from mail deliveries to money transfers. This had an impact of a fostered communication among people and entities especially before other modes of communications like the mobile phones and the internet were widely developed. It has also had negative impacts in its services. There have in the past been outcries over increased postal rates which can be attributed to lack of competition (Gale, 2011) Being formed by a legislation of the congress, the postal service can be classified as a government monopoly. Government monopolies are those monopolies that are established as a result of legislation passed by a government to protect a given market. In its case the United States postal service was established as a monopoly to protect it from private investors who would be selective in service delivery with profit as the guiding factor and not provision of the necessary services to people (USPS, 2008).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The postal service can be seen to have an extensively distributed network all over the United States. The supply of its services is therefore not limited as one of its legal mandate is the service delivery to the citizens (USPS, 2008). Geddes explains that as any state owned monopoly, the postal service at times offer prices that are bellow reasonable in order to force private competitors out of the market. This can be done even if its net effect is a loss to the state cooperation (Geddes, 2003). The postal service does not directly discriminate on prices but had in earlier years been accused of indirect discrimination of offering specialized services to second class mailers at no extra charge (FTP, n.d. ). References FTP. (n.d.) Post Office. FTP Resource. Retrieved from: web. Gale. (2011). United States Postal Service. Business High Beam. Web. Geddes, R. (2003). Opportunities for Anticompetitive Behavior in Postal Services. American Entreprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Retrieved from: aei.org/ Money. ( 2011). Monopoly. Money Terms. Retrieved from: https://moneyterms.co.uk/ USPS. (2008). Universal Service and the Postal Monopoly. United States Postal Services. Retrieved from: https://www.usps.com/Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Monopoly of the United States Postal Service specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Market mechanism and public service delivery Essay

Market mechanism and public service delivery - Essay Example In the last few decades,public administration has witnessed a deep process of reform in order to "make publicly-owned services and enterprises more business - like".For, public administration has increasingly translated into public governance and huge behemoths in the public sector are expected to be run more efficiently at reduced costs. In other words, it is expected that the public administration become competitive in delivering goods and services. Governments are expected to strategise a country's developmental priorities by providing an efficient, responsive and transparent public administration. Countries have now moved to a mix of market-based or competitive governance and civic-based or partnership governance. This has been brought about by the changing role of the state and the growing businesslike and managerial approach to the operations of Public Administration. A new fragmented and complex world of markets and networks has pushed governments to move from a direct deliver y of services to a more general coordination and control of government functions. While, there is substantial scope for increase in delivery of public services through the market mechanism, there are several limitations and impediments too.In a globalised era, public administration, or the delivery of public services considered as universal needs and much needed socio-economic infrastructure to civil society are proving to be a tough and complex task. Since Public Administration includes within its ambit political, economic and social governance, governments across the world are having to function in an environment marked by increased public scrutiny. This has arisen out of increasing democratization and the diffusion of ideas arising from the implosion of information and communication technologies. Text of the article Since the time of Plato, Aristotle and Kautilya, good public managers have been recognized as those with sound judgement, a sense of justice and courage to take action on behalf of the good of society. Traditionally, public administration entities ie government institutions responsible for providing vital services have been state-centric, huge, self sufficient monoliths, hierarchical in their relations and also inclined towards a controlling order. Since early Public service mechanism 2 times, the public administration in countries has been providing services essential to society, some of them considered as fundamental rights of the citizens, like the right to water. In addition, law and order, health, education and building infrastructure viz. roads, transportation including railways and aviation, telecommunication, sewage, energy and a host of other services have come within the ambit of public administration. Publicly owned services and industries are controlled by the central governments. These state-owned enterprises or services do not generate any profit and provide essential services for the entire population. The cost of providing these services is met from taxation money. Local bodies are entrusted with certain civic functions including waste management, maintenance of parks etc. The main advantage in public owned enterprises or services is that jobs for workers in these institutions are secure and unemployment does not

Monday, February 10, 2020

Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis Assignment

Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis - Assignment Example A good investment strategy is one that earns the investor an expected return that is at least equal to or higher than what comparable investments would earn (Sharpe, 1991). The goal of any investment strategy is to maximize the value of the investment by getting the highest possible expected return for a given level of risk. Every investment involves risk, which is the possibility of losing money if the investment decision turns out to be a wrong one. According to normal human behavior, the higher the risk, the higher should be the expected return. Different investments have different levels of risk. For the UK charity, the safest investment, which also gives the lowest return, is to buy UK government bonds because the government always pays its debt obligations. Other investments, such as metals, a start-up business, or equities have higher levels of risk, and according to studies such as one by Barclays (2007), equities have consistently given higher returns compared to bonds or metals. Thus, investing in equities is a good first step in the  Ã‚  Ã‚  The risk level of investments in equities is measured by beta (Black, 1993), which shows how the val ue of the investment moves compared to the FTSE All Share Index, a composite number that represents the investment return of the UK equities market. The Index measures the daily values of all shares traded in the London Stock Exchange. If this index went up from 6,131.50 to 6,554.90 in the last 52 weeks, then the return on an investment, also called the market return, in all the shares included in the index would be 6.91% and a 10,000 investment 52 weeks ago would now be worth 10,691 excluding fees and commissions (Economist, 2007). A beta of 1.03 means that the value of the investment portfolio moves very close to the market but is slightly riskier than the market and therefore gives a slightly higher return compared to the market. Thus, if the market returned 6.91% in the last 52 weeks, the portfolio returned 1.3 x 6.91% = 7.12%. A 10,000 investment would be 10,712 or better than the market. However, higher risk also means a higher loss than the market if the Index dropped. The correlation coefficient measures how the prices of the stocks in the portfolio move against each other. The figure is always between +1 (perfect correlation) and -1 (negative correlation) or zero (independent correlation). Perfect correlation means all stocks go up or down together; negative correlation means that some stocks go down when others go down, and zero or independent correlation means that the stock prices move independently of each other.   

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Self Assessment Essay Example for Free

Self Assessment Essay Overall, I feel that I have not done up to my expectations over the course of the two presentations. Comparatively, these are the areas that have improved/worsened: Engagement with Audience I feel that I had improved marginally by not referring to my phone (which happens to be my script) as often, but however, I was still distracted by the phone as well as the power point slides. Half of the time, I was busy referring to my script as well as the power point slides, causing me to lose engagement with the audience. This is one of the biggest problems that I have to overcome through this course. More often than not, I tend to forget the content that I wish to express, which results in the constant reference to the script and slides. Furthermore, when I was looking at the audience, I tend to look forward instead of looking at every single one of them. I believe I can overcome this problem by rehearsing with friends; with an audience of at least two people so that I can familiarize myself with looking at the crowd more often, instead of just simply looking forward. Preparation of Presentation In the course of preparation, I adopted the use of presentation slides, which I feel were quite meaningful in illustrating what I was trying to express. This helps to capture the audience’s attention and gives a clear picture of the topic that I was presenting. However, while preparing the script, I employed the use of several bombastic words that impeded my presentation in terms of expressing fluently. I feel very restricted to the script; I find myself having the obligation to follow exactly what the script says. This is very detrimental to my presentation and as a result, I kept referring to my script while doing the presentation whenever I forget a specific sentence. I feel that I should prepare a script in point form, rather than in specific structured sentences. This way, I will be less restricted by the script which is supposed to aid me, not the other way round. Articulation and Fluency In my opinion, I feel that I can pronounce and articulate words rather well, which is one of my stronger areas. However, there is a tendency that I will stutter, most likely due to nervousness as well as the obligation to express specific sentences which I described above. There is much to improve and I believe that more practice will be able to correct my tendency to stutter. Nervousness Overall, I was more nervous during OA1 compared to the practice presentation. It was reflected in the way I was referring to my slides and script, as well as stuttering. I feel that I was too reliant on my script, which caused me even more nervousness once I happen to let slip on my memory. Ample practices will definitely aid me in managing my nervousness. Furthermore, after these two presentations, I feel that I had gained experience which will definitely aid in my future presentations.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Prostitution in the 19th and 20th Centuries Essay -- Prostitute Prosti

During the late 19th- and early 20th century, the nature of society forced the working class women of America to take advantage of any means to support themselves, including prostitution. Each woman had to decide herself which work option best supported her financially. During this time, women had limited options as far as work was concerned. As time went on, more and more women were forced to work, because they had no husband and no other means of building up a dowry for a husband. By 1910 the wage labor force was made up of about 20% of women as young as fourteen. The wages these women earned were unbelievably low, and at times as much as 80% lower than the wages men earned. Possible job opportunities for the women included options such as a textile factory, which consisted of clothing and fabric production. In these factories, the women ran high risks to their health. More wealthy people would hire these women for domestic services such as nannies, or house servants. These jobs sometimes required the woman to live at that residence, and the women ran the constant risk of being molested by a higher-class ranking individual. Department stores were also willing to hire women. However, the set-back to this type of work was that the women we re sometimes expected to purchase expensive dress up clothing that most of the time they couldn’t afford. The women were advised to â€Å"round out their meager salaries by finding a ‘†gentleman friend†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ to purchase clothing and pleasures†(Peiss, 79). Prostitution was a reliable work engagement that many women participated in. Why did the women feel this was their best option? Several critical, attractive benefits that only prostitution offered contributed to women’s’ choice of ... ...dle-class reform women could have reversed their movements from the women, and turned them toward the men who were putting the prostitutes in business. Those prostitutes could not have been prostitutes if it were not for the eager men paying them for it. However, perhaps a reason this was not done was because the reform women did not have the means to do something as drastic as this because they were, after all, women in a time of man control. Women did not have the same leisurely rights to do as they pleased that men had. I feel that both the reform women and the working-class prostitutes had reasonable bounds for what they fought for. I think that if women had had the rights that men did, prostitution may never have existed. Therefore, personally I blame the men for neglecting women rights, and forcing them to find other, less moral ways to support themselves.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Comparison of the Chinese and American Cultures Essay

According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, culture is defined as â€Å"the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations. † Culture is an aspect all groups of humans have and even though it is an aspect our species shares, the supposed differences make it seem like we are of different species! Culture is something that both connects and separates us. Culture is something distinct enough to create barriers among us, such as: linguistic barriers and behavioral barriers. And this is especially seen between the American and Chinese cultures. River Town, by Peter Hessler, is a non-fiction novel that depicts Peter’s experiences as a Peace Corps volunteer in Fuling, China. He was sent to Fuling (a poor town on the banks of the Yangtze River) in 1996 and taught English and American literature for two years at a teachers college. This novel, in reading, seems more of a journal and thus, his writing of China puts the people and his experiences on a more personal level. He describes, with immense detail, his observations of the social, political and cultural issues of China and his experience as a waiguoren (foreigner). At his arrival, the people of the teachers college showered him and his fellow Peace Corps volunteer with many gifts and did everything they could to make them feel comfortable and welcome. However, alternately, whenever Peter would walk outside the campus of the school, the people would stare and gawk at him and yell, â€Å"outsider! † and â€Å"hello† out of curiosity and their own amusement. This made him dedicate a large part of his day solely to learning Chinese. As he becomes more proficient in Chinese, he develops friendships and connections and begins to feel more accepted. He talks about the troubled history of China: the struggles of land reform, decades of misguided economic policies and especially the damaging effects of the Cultural Revolution. Peter spends a good deal discussing the, then, upcoming project of the Three Gorges Dam, which has an immense, detrimental impact on the people. The project will require millions of villagers to be displaced and will destroy centuries worth of meaningful history. The author gives a very vivid illustration of the beautiful landscape, history and the people he meets. He also portrays the, especially political, perspectives of the Chinese quite well through learning from his students and teachers. According to Francis Hsu, the two sets of contrasts are: individual-centered versus situation-centered and the prominence of emotions versus the underplay of all matters regarding the heart. He believed Americans are concerned only of themselves and act according to what would be beneficial to them, and that the Chinese acted according to the situation at hand. The Chinese avoid direct confrontation, open criticism and controversial topics to maintain harmony. â€Å"In America, he saw the blind, often excessive pursuit of self-reliance and the inherent, permanent instability of human relationships as the root cause of many intractable social ills, including crime, racial discord, and the sale of influence in government. In China, he saw the traditional narrow focus on kinship based relationships had rendered their society unable to effectively counter Western colonialism, widespread poverty and famine, and even the practice of foot binding of women. † (Tong 2001) One aspect of the book that really interested me was the education system and different cultural differences of how education is looked upon. In the book, the students all had the same thoughts on almost every issue and those opinions would be unwavering. However, â€Å"Perhaps by my standards they were politically brainwashed, but compared to the past they were remarkably free. † (Hessler 2001:23) They would also communicate indirectly to Hessler; often times via their journals. Not only is the learning environment in China highly competitive and demanding, but expectations are high of students, forcing them to simply learn to achieve the highest grade possible. Also, Chinese students do not have electives they can choose from, they are assigned classes that best correspond to their scores on tests. Whereas in America, individualism and self-expression if looked high upon. Thus, in America, the individual student’s abilities and skills determine where they go in the future, and in China, what society or their parents want determines where they go. This is exactly what Francis Hsu talked about. I believe Peter Hessler was relatively objective in his journaling. Whenever he brought up thoughts or opinions of his students or any of the Fuling people, he briefly gave the history and background of them so we can understand where they are coming from. However, there were a few times where you could sense his extreme bias, but this was never fully evident in his writing. The difference between American and Chinese homes reflects the contrasting patterns of behavior in the family. In the US, children are highly regarded, cared for and have privilege, so far as to have laws and regulations protecting them. In China, children are taken for granted and have little to no reason to expect protection. Pediatrics was not a branch of medicine in China until just recently. In America, what is important is what parents should do for their parents; in China, what is important is what the children should do for their parents. This is a major reason why Chinese students are so focused on getting the best grades, so they can get a good job and take care of their elders. This is the basis for Filial Piety (virtue of respect for one’s parents and ancestors). American students focus on what is best for them and will usually move out the house at age 18 with no regard to taking care of their elders. Another difference between the two cultures is social relationships. The Chinese have formal, hierarchal relationships in which they feel most comfortable knowing their position. Americans have informal, egalitarian relationships in which they feel most comfortable among their equals and social ranking is not important. Ironically however, the Chinese tend to have a few, very close friends to whom they feel obligated to when it comes to helping them; Americans tend to have numerous â€Å"friends† and acquaintances that changes over time and to whom they feel no obligations. Works Cited 2001 River Town: Two years on the Yangtze. HarperCollins Publishers. Aguilar, Leslie, and Linda Stokes 1996. Multicultural Customer Service: Providing Outstanding. Service Across Cultures. Chicago: Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc â€Å"CultureAbout Our Definitions: All Forms of a Word (noun, Verb, Etc. ) Are Now Displayed on One Page. † Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n. d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013 Li Qing 1995. â€Å"Face, Guanxi, Houmen(r) & Elastic Rules: Insight into the Chinese Culture. † Presentation at conference of NAFSA: Association of International Educators. Tong, William K. â€Å"Excerpts from Americans & Chinese by Francis Hsu. † Excerpts from Americans & Chinese by Francis Hsu. Oakton Community College, 2001. Web. 22 Apr. 2013.   

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Diversity Of The Canadian Nation - 946 Words

Society functions in a manner accepting of the differences within people; and the innumerable qualities all individuals put forward. It is the differences within individuals that make for betterment of society; and allow the Canadian nation to be open and accepting of diversity. This notion of diversity is not only one which can be directed towards the large spectrum of society yet, to the family structures which impact it wholesomely, while too, holding effect upon their personal life and relationships. â€Å"The word â€Å"family† is used in various ways in popular usage, referring in different contexts to our parents, siblings, spouse and children, as well as referring to all the relatives sharing a household and the larger group of relatives with whom we may or may not maintain some contact†, (Baker, Page 3, 2014). Speaking to the level of family structures and whom one considers â€Å"family†; it is an area which each individuals should be allowed to dictat e in their own manner and hold sole control over. As a nation and/or state focus should be directed at improving the quality of life and equality amongst all sectors of families; in addition to promoting diversity; rather than focusing on the small social and financial issues that Social Service Programs are in place to provide assistance for. Unit One, of the class began in stating families and family life in Canada has dramatically changed over the past few generations. In society today, people believe it is theirShow MoreRelatedThe Government of Canada and Multiculturalism Essay examples1670 Words   |  7 Pages1970s in Canada that focused on unique cultural diversity, nationalities, and ethnicity across the nation. 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